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医学翻译实务

作者:医药翻译   日期:2017-03-30   

医学翻译是翻译实务中的常见类型,现将部分要点结合艺庭的翻译实践与国外编辑的反馈总结如下。望大家多多指教。

 

一、易错点

 

1. 时态

实验过程(实验步骤以及结果)通常用过去时

一般性的介绍以及结论通常用一般现在时


2. 语态

医学论文等科技文献中,为了客观起见,实验方法多用被动语态。

例:

1.5ml Eppendorf管吸取EDTA抗凝全血600μl,加入等量细胞裂解液

1.5ml Eppendorf tube was used to extract EDTA anti-freezing 600μl whole blood, and the equal amount of cell lysis buffer was added.

 

3. 漏译

句子太长,名词过多,并列结构复杂,常导致疏忽漏译汉语经常出现无主语的句子,翻成英文就必须要补充上主语

例:

1症状无明显改善为无效。

改善的主语是症状,而无效的主语应当是治疗。

Symptoms were not improved and the treatment was ineffective.

(2)磁共振术前评价LVEDd较超声增加。

这里磁共振评价应该与超声评价相比而不是与超声相比

Evaluation of the magnetic resonance in LVEDd before the operation has increased compared with that of the ultrasound in LVEDd.

(3)分组同方法23组细胞按1.5×105/孔的密度接种于96孔板,分别培养123456 d后加20μl MTT工作液,继续于CO2培养箱中37 ℃培养4 h后,加入二甲亚砜终止反应。

The grouping remained the same as that of method 2. Three groups of cells were inoculated on 96-well plates according to the density of 1.5×105/well and 20μl MTT working solution was added after being cultivated for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 d. After cells were cultivated in CO2 incubator at 37 ℃ for 4 h, dimethyl sulfoxide was added to terminate reaction.

此处“继续于CO2培养箱中37 ℃培养4 h后”主语当指前面提到的“3组细胞”,因此翻译时需补充出来,否则后面主句主语为dimethyl sulfoxide,造成误译。

 

4. 句子结构

按照句子结构,可将英文句子分为:

(1)简单句(1个主谓结构)

(2)并列句(2个或2个以上主谓结构,句与句之间通常用并列连词或分号连接)

(3)复合句(包含1个主句和1个或几个从句,通常通过从属连词、分词、独立主格等实现)

 

医学论文中描述实验过程时,中文一个句子中往往包括多个短的小句,在对应到英文时不能多个短句一逗到底仍为一句,往往需要通过拆分、连词、分号、从句等多种结构上的变化进行连接、重组或断句。

 

这一问题在医学论文翻译中尤为突出,但根据我们长期的审稿经验,该现象在各类文体中十分均常见,为中式英语典型错误。应注意:英语多从句,汉语多分句。

 

二、 常见语句


1. 连续选择48例我院于20102015 收治的患者。

48 cases of patients admitted to our hospital from 2010 to 2015 were continuously selected.

 

2. 即判定为阴性/阳性

It was suggested to be positive / negative.

 

3. 该手术研究取得我院伦理委员会通过患者及患者家属的知情权。

The surgery research has obtained the approval of the Ethic Committee of our hospital and the informed consent of patients and their families.

 

4. 统计学

采用SPSS20.0软件进行统计分析计量资料以均数±标准差表示,组间比较采用单因素ANOVA分析,两两比较采用LSD法检验,组内比较采用配对t检验;P<0.05认为差异有统计学意义。

SPSS20.0 software was used for statistical analysis and measurement data were expressed by the mean ± standard deviation. Comparisons among groups were analyzed by one-way ANOVA; comparisons between two groups were tested by LSD method; comparisons within groups underwent paring t test; and P<0.05 indicated that the difference was statistically significant.

 

5. 采用三步法进行实验操作,具体方案参照说明书并有所改进。

The experiment was carried out in three steps, and the specific scheme was in accordance with (according to) the instructions and improved.

 

6. 但是其中涉及的其他基因及因子本研究没有进一步深入探究.

However, other relevant genes and factors involved in the process yet not discussed here need to be studied further.

 

7. 对象与方法

patients and methods

其中男性14例,女性9

The patients included 14 men and 9 women.

 

8. 对照组/研究组/实验组/观察组

control/ research/ experimental/ observation group

 

9. 统计学处理

statistical processing

 

10. 正相关/负相关

was positively/ negatively correlated with

 

11. 计量数据/计数数据

measurement data / count data 

 

12. 方差齐/方差不齐

homogeneity of variance/ heterogeneity of variance

 



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